9-11 Conspiracy of the Engineers

Michael O’Connor
Historical Methods
Prof. Elliot Neaman
9/11- When The Government Attacks!
On September 11th, 2001 nineteen members of the terrorist organization, Al-Qaeda, hijacked four commercial airplanes destined for the United States and intentionally flew them into the World Trade Center Towers, the Pentagon, and almost into the White House in Washington DC. In total over 3,000 innocent men, women, and children were killed (except for the 19 hijackers), and more than 5,000 wounded. The terrorist attacks of September the 11th were the worst attacks on American soil in the entire history of the nation. Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda claimed a Jihad (Holy war) on the United States, and have taken responsibility for the terrorist attacks. Consequently, The United States began its invasion of Afghanistan (now nine years into the conflict), dubbed Operation Enduring Freedom, in an attempt to capture or kill Osama Bin Laden, the Al Qaeda terrorist network, and their supporters in the region. Despite this, there are organizations within the United States that believe the United States government, under the presidency of George W. Bush, purposefully plotted the attacks against their own country. They argue that the Bush administration committed these atrocities in order to start war in the Middle East, to gain power over the American public, and also increase personal monetary gains. There are various arguments that conspiracy organization use to explain the government’s role in the destruction of the World Trade Center towers. These claims vary from underground tunnels to a secret third World Trade Center building to the top secret Jewish agenda for destroying the World Market. Obviously these arguments are completely erroneous, yet the heart of the matter is that there are people all over the world that seriously believe in such theories. The United States itself has the number one historical revision group in the world, the Institute for Historical Review, which is located in Southern California. The IHR is famous for its anti-Jewish ideals and the denial of what happened during the Holocaust. Much like the IHR, many 9/11-conspiracy groups attempt to deceive the public by presenting their arguments and “case-studies” as non-biased and scientifically accurate, while subliminally spreading their beliefs. Websites for these organizations are purposefully created to seem official and credible, often imitating the websites of professional news agency and newspapers. Such techniques are used to persuade audiences into believers and toss common sense and rationality out the window.
Before analyzing specific people and groups who regard 9/11 as a governmental conspiracy and their reasoning for believing so, we must first start with a simple, why? Why do these men and women, regular citizens and PHD certified professors alike, place the blame and murder of American citizens on their own government, the very people they democratically elected to power. Up until the end of the Second World War, the American public had full faith in its government and it’s intentions. However, with ever-increasing contradictions, and blatant US steps to increase military involvement throughout the world, US citizens became more skeptical about the morals of their government. In reality, who can blame the skeptics and non-believers? There have been countless reports of governmental conspiracies and cover-ups since the late 1950’s to give credibility to conspiracy theories. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution of 1964 has constantly been debated and entitled as a scandal fabricated by the US government to further blame North Vietnam and allow for increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. On June 13th, 1971 Daniel Ellsberg released secret governmental documents, dubbed the “Pentagon Papers”, which were released by the New York Times and contained information about President Johnson’s plans to escalate the war in Vietnam. The Pentagon Papers also detailed previously unknown raids and bombings in neighboring Cambodia and Laos by the U.S. Air Force, breaking the sovereignty of those nations. In 1972 security officials working in the Democratic National Committee’s headquarters at Watergate noticed unlocked doors leading into rooms where important Democratic information was held. Five men were found wire-taping communications and stealing or damaging political information. It was their intention to spy on their Democratic opponents and help President Nixon, a Republican, win the up and coming presidential election. These instances are but a few of the many cases where the U.S. government has been caught acting suspiciously and have given false pretences about their actual intentions. It is obvious that the U.S. government has tried to cover-up certain issues from the American public, but claiming that the U.S. government murdered their own people and committed the ultimate form of treason requires the kind of extensive research and evidence that these conspiracy groups lack.
As the saying goes “with great power, comes great responsibility”, and being world’s greatest superpower since the Allied victory in World War Two, the United States has been monitored closely by everyone domestically and internationally. After the terrorist attacks of September 11th some people did not direct their attention to Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda, those who took responsibility for the attacks, but rather to Washington D.C. and President George Bush. There are several reasons for why conspiracy theorists believe the U.S. government under George W. Bush committed the atrocities of 9/11, and while some of these accusations hold more water than others, there is one never changing claim; the use of explosives to destroy the Twin Towers.

So Who Are They?
Three of the major organizations that suspect the U.S. government of secretly razing the World Trade Center towers are 9/11 Truth (which contains University professors), Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth, and Fighter Fighters for 9/11 Truth. At first glance the names of these organizations give instant stereotypical credibility to the groups because society regards its University professors, engineers, architects, and fire fighters with great reverence for their highly skilled professions. Each of these different groups tries to appeal to the public eye by putting these highly renowned professions in the titles of the organizations. Obviously these groups do not claim to represent all of the members of their profession, however, because they do claim that there are firefighters and engineers and architects that deny the official report, they are making an effort to seem legitimate and professionally sound. Each has various reasoning for why they believe the government played a role in 9/11, yet there is one constant accusation that links all of the conspiracy groups together; the use of high-grade explosives to level the World Trade Center towers. There are numerous ways in which conspiracy theorists try to prove the use of explosives on the Twin Towers. They undertake the task by comparing the natural collapse of buildings against the collapsing of structures by use explosives, the finding of explosive residue in the rubble of Ground Zero, and through “professional” testimony on the subject. Unfortunately for these organizations, all that is needed to disprove their accusations is a brief dissecting of their rhetoric.

So Where Is The Credibility?
It is imperative that I postpone my analysis of the major arguments presented by 9/11 conspiracy groups yet again, in order to illustrate the extent of their credibility. There are numerous 9/11 conspiracy groups around the United States, many of who can be found with a quick Google search, that deny the official governmental report on what happened on September 11th. Some of these groups are heavily funded, while others are simply individuals that wish to get their opinions out via the World Wide Web. The most highly funded are also the three major organizations that I have already mentioned, 9/11 Truth, Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth, and Fire Fighters for 9/11 Truth. These three groups are funded by donor support and have websites that they use to spread their opinions and so-called evidence to the public. Each of them has various segments to their websites that describe their mission, supporters, contributors, and evidence. Between these different aspects there are commonalities that are much more than mere coincidence.
The men and women who are openly named as supporters for these groups are also the same people who contribute videos and articles to them. Not only do they aid each organization by supplying “evidence”, but also the organizations themselves copy information from other websites aspiring to prove the 9/11 conspiracy. For example, on articles that are trying to prove that explosives were used to destroy the World Trade Center towers, they will reference facts from websites with similar information. Not only are they attempting to fool the audience that this information is credible because other groups mention them, but consequently they are trying to bolster the other organizations credibility as a whole. By creating the illusion that these other websites are legitimate news sources, audience members will check out those pages, where upon further investigation, the other group that was first stumbled upon is praised as well. Doing this manipulates the audience into a false sense of security making them more susceptible to believing the information on the conspiracy. The majority of people logging onto these websites are trying to research more about the conspiracy because of pure curiosity, making them naturally inclined to check out other conspiracy websites.
The most important information presented by the websites of these organizations is the infamous ‘evidence’ tab. Underneath the ‘evidence’ tab lays a plethora of articles written about the conspiracy, along with detailed explanations by contributors explaining their arguments and raw video footage from 9/11. The written articles may seem at first to be legitimate, but a quick scan of where the information was taken from tells the whole story. All of the articles are taken directly from other 9/11-conspiracy group’s websites and are exact replicas of what is found on those websites. Not one article was taken from a professional and accredited news agency such as the BBC, New York Times, CNN, FOX, or MSNBC. All these groups are doing is extracting articles that further their cause from other websites and re-title them so that they appear like new information. In one fell swoop any professionalism that these articles and their authors wanted to impose on readers is destroyed due to lack of originality and because they obviously have no new material to support the claims they have made.
Now it is time to detail and explain the two major arguments that are mentioned by 9/11 conspiracy groups, and why they are wrong. These two assertions are common between the different groups and have the most information compiled about them in contrast to any other explanations. The two assumptions conspiracy organizations use are comparison of buildings by means of explosives and natural physics, and the finding of active thermitic chips around Ground Zero.

Explosive Collapse vs. Natural Collapse
When the twin towers collapsed on September 11th accusations arose that there were explosions seen at the bottom of the towers. Conspiracy groups quickly claimed that explosives were needed because jet fuel does not burn at a high enough temperature to melt steel, and also the way the buildings collapsed physically does not parallel how it should have with jet liners crashing into the top of them. This theory not only implies that the government knew about the impending attacks and may have allowed the terrorists to gain control of the airplanes, but that the government’s hand was actually involved in the murder of over 3,000 of its own citizens. A leading group that supports this claim is the Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth. They acknowledge that the collapsing of the towers from jetliner impact is a possibility, but “collapses of heavily constructed buildings like the Twin Towers and WTC 7 had never occurred prior to Sept. 11, 2001, without some form of “assistance.” The reason for this is that they are built with significant reserve strength. The construction of each floor is designed to support several times the actual load above it” (AE911). It is true that buildings such as the Twin Towers are indeed built with reserve strength in case of emergency. They can hold extra weight because of all the equipment and personnel that will be working on them, and because they need to be able to withstand natural disasters such as earthquakes without collapsing. Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth are not the only people who believe that the floors of these buildings could have withstood the impact of the incoming jets. Several university professors also support the idea due to the speed and physics of the incoming planes
Dr. Zdenek Bazant is a professor at Northwestern University and believes that through physical science there is proof that explosives were needed to destroy the towers, and specifically the North World Trade Center Tower. Dr. Bazant explains that buildings such as the World Trade Center Towers are built with enough reserve strength to hold several times its own weight to resist collapse from the impact of a foreign object. In order for collapse of such a building, the object impacting it must be decelerating against gravity. This deceleration before impact is known as dynamic loading, which can add the necessary weight to collapse re-enforced buildings. A theorem that can be used in order to support this, Dr. Bazant explains, is “ represented by the equation F = mg + m(deceleration), where mg is the static load and the m(deceleration) term is the additional load due to dynamic effects” (AE911). In short, in order for the towers to fall due to the impact from the jetliners, the planes would have needed to decelerate into them to cause gravitational distortion. During the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers supposedly no deceleration took place and “in fact the upper section of WTC 1 continuously accelerated, at approximately 2/3 of g (free-fall) during the first several seconds of the building’s collapse” (AE911). Because the upper section of the WTC 1 building was accelerating rather than decelerating, there is no reason why it would have collapsed upon itself without the help of a powerful external source.
To prove that the Twin Towers did not collapse naturally, conspiracy advocates describe a technique that demolition engineers have recently used in order to level buildings without using devastating and costly explosives called the Verinage technique. This technique uses hydraulic rams to break and weaken the center scaffolding of buildings in order to make the building incapable of supporting its own weight and therefore naturally collapsing upon itself. When the Verinage technique is used, buildings will fall directly downwards and collapse inward because the center support is what fails to hold the weight. The World Trade Center Towers also collapsed inward, although the planes did not hit the central support of the towers, but instead crashed into the outside of the upper portions of them. For this reason Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth propose that “there is obviously no deceleration in the fall of the upper section of WTC 1. A “natural” collapse (without the use of explosives) could not have occurred without it. Therefore, this verified scientific data proves that explosives must have been employed to remove the structural columns – and thus to bring down the World Trade Center North Tower” (AE911). Below are the charts that Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth use to ‘prove’ that explosives were needed to take down the World Trade Centers. The first chart depicts the progress of a buildings natural collapse due to the Verinage technique (Balzac-Vitry), and the second displays how the roofing of WTC 1 came down.

(VERINAGE) (EXPLOSIVES)

No Thanks, try Again!
All of this so-called scientific proof may seem reliable and accurate, however there is a major flaw in these approaches. Dr. Bazant’s theorems have been taken optimistically by skeptics as solid proof of explosives being used, “however, Dr. Bazant had not performed any actual measurements to support his theory” (AE911), therefore destroying his credibility. There is no need to refute him, for he has already refuted himself by failing to test his ideas at all- rendering them meaningless. Also, the comparison of the Verinage technique against the use of explosives lacks several key factors that the men and women of Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth purposefully fail to mention. First of all, any possible explosions from inside the building could easily have been from heating pipelines, generators, and other gas lines used for air conditioning and internal heating. Because of excess pressure these burst causing minor explosions on the lower levels of the already compressed building. They also fail to bring to light that the World Trade Center Towers did not fall instantaneously upon impact. It took over an hour for the buildings to collapse, giving ample time for the amount of chaos going on inside the buildings and eventual wear-and-tear to naturally level them. In their attempt to use charts to prove that natural destruction is not feasible through the examination of deceleration, Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth compare a completely different building, the Balzac-Vitry building, and the collapse of only one section of the WTC 1, the roofing.
The use of charts as a visual and statistical way to prove a point is an excellent idea, yet the buildings used in this presentation are far from convincing. Not only are the two buildings completely different in size and shape, but the only the roofing of the WTC 1 tower is compared to the complete destruction of the Batzac-Vitry building. This brings into questions the size, shape, strength, and materials used for the building, all of which would drastically effect the destruction of the buildings and whether or not natural destruction came into play. Not only are the engineers attempting to compare the demolition of two completely different buildings, but they are also comparing the collapse of two building that share nothing in common. The Balzac-Vitry building is actually an old French business building, while the enormous and modern World Trade Center Towers are much better reinforced and made of better materials. Drastic differences in collapse between these two buildings resulted because they were not similar in anyway, not because of explosives. The charts in no way prove the use of explosives like the Architects and Engineers for 9/11 Truth want us to believe and leave them without any sort of case for denying natural physics in the fall of the World Trade Center Towers.

Active Thermitic Material and Other Explosive Materials
After the towers were shattered, the reconstruction work by police officers, firefighters, and volunteer groups began. Clean up crews continued to work around the clock searching for victims both dead and alive throughout the rubble. While this was happening construction workers began the long backbreaking work of cleaning up the pieces of what once were the grand World Trade Center buildings. While sifting through the rubble, workers were exposed to toxins such as asbestos and other deadly chemicals; deadly chemicals, say 9/11 skeptics, that were left over from the explosives used to bring down the structures. The obvious question to ask is how can you tell that these chemicals came form explosives? Conspiracy groups proclaim that red chips with gray outside linings, known as aluminothermic nano-composite pyrotechnics, were found spread out around Ground Zero. These chips expressed characteristics similar to what is also used in the composition of explosives. There are three traits associated with this material, “physical structure, chemical composition, and thermal behavior”, all of which “clearly establish that they are aluminothermic nano-composite pyrotechnics” (911Research.wtc.net)”. The importance of this material is that it is the same type of material used in explosives because of its highly energetic traits and ability to ignite. When two of the three above-mentioned factors are combined together they become pyrotechnic materials, aka possible explosives and more importantly they can be electrically controlled.
In order to view the physical structure of the material, it is examined through a high-powered microscope. When “zooming in on the red layer shows it to be composed of two different types of particles embedded in a porous matrix: thin plates typically hexagonal in shape, and faceted grains” (911Research.wtc.net). The composition of the material has uniform and regularity amongst the particles, all of which are small and intermingled at high consistency throughout the material. The way these chips were made proves that a professional hand was needed to create such symmetrical and identical material. These chips were exactly like one another, and found all over ground zero, calling for the use of the same high-tech explosive device throughout different areas of the base(s) of the Towers. These mixtures of particles “are all features of a nano-engineered material. It is not possible that such a material was formed as a by-product of the destruction of the Twin Towers” (911Research.wtc.net). The physical structure is only one part of the debris that theorists claim to link with the explosives they believe were detonated on the World Trade Center towers.
The second aspect of the chips in question is their chemical composition. The chemical compounds of this material alone present no danger, however, when coupled with the physical compounds, they can be deadly. Recall the physical structure of the plates that lie within the material. They are made mostly of aluminum, a metal that absorbs a heavy amount of oxygen. The grains that also lie within the chips are primarily composed of iron and oxygen in the ratio of the Fe2O3 and reacts intensely with oxygen (911Research.wtc.net). Therefore, this material is designed for drastic chemical reaction against itself. These nano-particles contain the proper ingredients for thermite, one half of what is need for explosive pressure. Finally, the matrix that is intertwined within the particles contains a constant string of silicon, oxygen, and carbon, which can all be found in nano-thermite, and is perfect for high explosives. Skeptics point to the fact that all these pieces were found in abundance throughout the rubble of the Twin Towers, and that “it is not possible that such materials milled themselves into fine powder and assembled themselves into a chemically optimized aluminothermic composite as a by-product of the destruction of the Twin Towers” (911Reserch.wtc.net). The thermal reaction is the last stage of the process and occurs when heat is added to the already energized particles. When heat meets the different particles, the particles within the material react against each other and cause imploding, resulting in an explosion- the more material present, the bigger and more powerful the explosion will be.
After discovering these red-gray chips around Ground Zero, 9/11 conspiracy groups assert that there is no reason that such material should be present without the detonation of explosives. Such material would not have been used in the construction of the World Trade Center Towers because of the nature of its composition. No one would use material that can be used for explosives or that is this highly energized to build any structure, especially such substantial and important buildings like the World Trade Center Towers, so why were they present in the rubble of Ground Zero?

It’s Elementary, My Dear Watson!
September 11th was not the first time that Al-Qaeda cells had attacked the World Trade Center. On February 26, 1993 Al-Qaeda operatives set off explosives in the parking garage of the World Trade Center Towers causing damage to the lower sections, shutting off power, and forcing mass evacuations. This was a shock to the American-ego because before this terrorist attack the idea that anti-American operatives could infiltrate and harm the United States within our own borders was unheard of. After this safety alarm went off “the Port Authority spent an initial $100 million to make physical, structural, and technological improvements to the WTC, as well as to enhance its fire safety plan and reorganize and bolster its fire safety and security staffs” (9- 11 Commission). To make up for the bomb blast of 93’, U.S. security officials analyzed and reinforced the World Trade Center Towers in order to prepare for another possible bomb threat in the future. The foundation of the structures and the beams that supported it were drastically reinforced in order to be able to sustain the force of military grade explosives and other high-tech bombs. Abdul Yahman Rasin, the mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center attacks, used 1,310 pounds of explosives and was still unable to take down the more vulnerable and less stable towers. If enough explosives were used on September 11th to level the structures, the immediate result of the mass amount of bombs that would be needed would cause an enormous eruption, one that could be heard and seen for miles. It would be impossible for explosives to have taken down the towers without the public noticing the result of such eruptions. Well what about the “active thermitic materials” found around the towers, they must surely point towards explosives, right? No. The chips that 9/11 conspiracy advocates claim to be explosive residue have never been found in the rubble of the World Trade Center Towers. However, what have been found are pieces of electrical generators, high-tech computers, gas pipelines, water heaters, monitors, and other such equipment that all use heat regulation systems. Much of the same highly energized material is used in our daily electronic devices in order to turn them on and off and keep their batteries running. This is why sparks fly out of cables in electronics when they are damaged and how batteries overheat and shut down. Insurgents in Iraq and Afghanistan even use mobile phones and other small appliances as Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) because they can be turned deadly with simple manipulation and a strong electrical current. During the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings all the equipment used by its workers was crushed, disintegrating them and scattering the left over pieces amongst the rubble Ground Zero. These parts include the red and grey ‘active thermitic’ chips that conspiracy groups claim were from bombs. If it wasn’t explosives, then what was it that weakened the towers support?
Conspiracy theorists also claim that active thermitic explosives had to have been used because jet fuel does not burn at a high enough temperature to melt the steel frame of the towers, and this is true. The burning of jet fuel alone is not strong enough to melt steel, on the other hand, it is strong enough to weaken and soften steel. The weakening of the frames coupled with the major infrastructure damage already caused because of the impact of the jet liners was sufficient to wear down the towers until they collapsed. A combination of gravity, shock impact damage, and the temperature caused by the burning of jet fuel all attributed to the destruction of the towers and in no logical way point to explosives being used or needed. The burning of jet fuel can also relate to the previous conspiracy argument about natural collapse because it plays a key role into why the towers collapsed inward. When the temperature of the jet fuel softened the steel framing of the towers and pressure points were damaged from the impact of the jetliners, the steel bent outwards failing to support the weight of the floors above it. The tower fell because the “floor below (with its 1,300 t design capacity) could not support the roughly 45,000 t of ten floors (or more) above crashing down on these angle clips. This started the domino effect that caused the buildings to collapse within ten seconds, hitting bottom with an estimated speed of 200 km per hour” (TMS). After the planes struck the World Trade Center Towers, they left the support beams and scaffolding off center and connecting points in the steel badly damaged. During the evacuations of workers from the buildings, the jet fuel continued to burn and the resulting fire inside the building added to the temperature. Although this temperature was not enough to melt the steal beams that supported the floors of the World Trade Center Towers, it was enough to soften them until they could not withstand the gravitational weight of what was above them and lead to an eventual collapse.

Well, What About The Testimonies?
Conspiracy theorists use the testimonies of witnesses who admit they saw explosions at the bases of the towers after the planes struck the World Trade Center Towers as evidence to support their arguments. The few witnesses that have said that they saw explosions at the foundations of the towers had conspiracy organizations jumping like cats towards dangling string and argue that explosives are the only explanation. An argument used on their websites is that firefighters and other first responders reported flashes and explosions inside the buildings while they were attempting to aid workers trapped inside. A video clip used by Fire Fighters for 9/11 Truth and other organizations portrays two fire fighters taking a rest after just barely escaping from one of the towers. In the video the two fire fighters say that there were explosions on the floor they were on and near the end one of them finishes with “anyone of these buildings could blow up”. What these groups did was focus on the 2 minutes of the interview where these men said their were explosions, however, they never explain what kind of explosions or the context in which it was said. There is an abrupt start to the video where the conspiracy theorists want you see, and an abrupt end for the same reason. Just because there were eruptions inside the towers does not imply bombs were the cause of those eruptions. In fact, it was a combination of electrical generators, central heating pipelines, water heaters, and destruction of electrical outlets and other equipment under the pressure of a slowly breaking building that forced combustion against each other, resulting in explosions throughout the bottom levels of the towers. There were no explosives, only the crashing of millions of dollars of equipment on top of each other in a short amount of time. The only foul play here is the deceptive and error-filled claims by 9/11 conspiracy groups attempting to blame the U.S. government for the murder of its own people.

The Verdict
There are conspiracy groups for everything ranging from the building of the Egyptian pyramids to the assassination of the John F. Kennedy. Each has reasons and arguments tailored toward specific aspects of the subject. These organizations will nit-pick until they stumble upon something that they can muster enough information on to be able to create any sort of doubt. By even establishing the smallest amount of doubt, they have become a catalyst that can evolve into questioning anything. The moment someone stops to think that that what these groups say could be true, the conspiracy theorists have won. It only takes an implanted idea in a few people to help push a political agenda upon the rest of society. Similarly, 9/11 conspiracy theorists have found certain arguments with which they have compiled enough information and evidence on to be able to claim a governmental inside-job for the terrorist attacks. The major argument used is that explosives were ignited in order to take down the World Trade Center towers. Through the use of physics and scientific theorems conspiracy organizations make an effort to prove the explosives argument while being viewed as professional and scholarly. However, there are obvious flaws in their logic that once they are noted, obliterate the information they present as fact.
In an attempt to be perceived as knowledgeable on the topic, the conspiracy groups use charts and theorems with fancy scientific words to explain the collapsing of the Towers. Unfortunately, the theorem they present has never been practically tested or observed to be true. They admit this themselves, and simply latch onto this formula in hope that it can pass off as legitimate. In an attempt to support their unproven theorem, a chart is attached detailing the physics of natural collapse versus the collapse of a building due to explosives. This would greatly have enhanced their arguments had the chart had anything to do with the theorem. All the graphs did was present the total destruction of an entirely different French building with the inward collapse of the roofing of the WTC 1 building. This is an absurd attempt at supporting their ideas because it has absolutely nothing to do with them. The two buildings are not of the same size or shape, nor are they built of the same materials. Also, the destruction of a building due to natural physics and being hit by a high-powered commercial jet liner will never be equivalent.
In another makeshift effort at supporting the theory that explosives were needed, conspiracy theorists point to red and grey chips that were scattered around ground zero. These chips were active thermitic chips meaning that they are highly energized and perfect for use in military grade explosives and bombs. What these groups fail to point out is that these chips are also used in high-tech appliances such as generators, televisions, phones, monitors, and other equipment that would be in abundant in a major economic trade center. Red and grey chips being found around ground zero prove nothing, and because these pieces were found does not mean that explosives were used.
The United States will never forget the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001. They were the worst attacks on U.S. soil and caused the destruction of not only the buildings of the World Trade Center Towers but also the lives of thousands of Americans. The City of New York was in shock for weeks and the rebuilding process was long and tedious. After the attacks, the U.S. government had a special council investigate the situation and file an official, highly detailed report on what had occurred. The majority of the American people accepted the reasoning put out by the government, yet there were still those that shouted conspiracy. The terrorist organization Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attacks and released a video of Osama Bin Laden explaining why they had done it. For this to have all been a giant governmental conspiracy, President Bush would have had to have planned the attacks with Al Qaeda and informed every civilian air traffic controlee and military air defense unit of the planes drastic change in flight style and direction. Simple research into the topic provides more than enough evidence that the towers fell due uneven frame support because of the impact of the planes and consequently the natural weakening of the steel beams due to burning jet fuel. The floors of the buildings gave-way because they were trying to withstand weight and pressure that they no longer could, resulting in collapse.
The United States government has committed its fair share of scandals and has had plenty of cover-ups thwarted, but saying that the government purposefully and deceitfully blew up its own center for international trade and murdered American citizens is a far-fetched claim. The vast majority of these conspiracy theorists were biased against the government to begin with and wanted to spread their own political agenda anyway they could. Claiming that the U.S. government committed these horrendous and deadly terrorist attacks upon its own citizens is just another way of gaining support against the government and push political ideals upon the public. Whether or not someone supports a certain governmental administration is a personal opinion, but before blaming them for everything that happens to a county, I can only hope there is enough common sense to conduct personal research on the topic and not believe everything that they hear.

WORKS CITED

1. Thomas, Eagar W., and Christopher Musso. “Why Did the World Trade Center Collapse? Science, Engineering, and Speculation.” TMS. Dec. 2001. Web. .

2. Hoffman, Jim. “Active Thermitics Made Simple.” 9-11 Research: An Independent Investigation of the 9-11-2001 Attack. 26 Apr. 2009. Web. .

3. Rika, Eli. “Little-Known 9/11 Truth Organization Strikes Gold in Court Action Against NIST, Unearths Striking Video/Photo WTC Evidence.” AE911Truth.org. 06 Nov. 2010. Web. http://www.ae911truth.org/en/news/41-articles/401-little-known-911-truth-organization-strikes-gold.html

4. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/911/index.html (Sections 9.1 -9.4)

5. http://firefightersfor911truth.org/?cat=4 (Second Video)

**Used Not in Actual Quotes, but websites I still used for Research**

6. http://www.911truth.org/

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